Yuli Schwartz, Antiquities Authority on 24 April, 2023 Yuli Schwartz, Antiquities Authority on 24 April, 2023
The compass

Israel Antiquities Authority announces discovery of compass from deadly ‘Battle of the 35’ during the War of Independence.

By Pesach Benson, TPS

It’s easy for archaeologists to detach themselves from ancient finds, but the discovery of a brass compass from a massacre of 35 Israeli soldiers in 1948 left two researchers feeling like they were given a “punch in the stomach.”

The Israel Antiquities Authority announced on Monday the discovery of the compass from what Israeli history calls “The Battle of the 35” during the War of Independence.

The story of the compass begins on January 16, 1948, when a convoy of 38 men from the Haganah, the primary paramilitary organization of pre-state Israel, set out to deliver supplies to besieged Jewish communities in Gush Etzion, south of Jerusalem. Three men returned early after one sprained an ankle and couldn’t continue.

The convoy was detected by the Arabs who cut off the convoy. After an all-day fight, the Jews ran out of ammunition. The Arabs killed and mutilated all 35 people in the convoy. The massacre and mutilation became known in Israeli history as “The Convoy of 35.”

After the war, the bodies were recovered and reburied at the Mt. Herzl Cemetery in Jerusalem.

The compass, as well as Bren-type machine gun pods, were discovered behind a rock at the top of Battle Hill, which apparently served as a shelter for one of the fighters. Forensic research done at the Israel Police laboratories concluded that the glass of the compass shattered after being hit by a bullet.

According to the researchers, the compass belonged to either division commander Danny Mass, or to scouts Yitzhak Halevi or Yitzhak Zevuloni.

“This study is a kind of punch in the stomach,” said Eyal Marko of the Antiquities Authority who discovered the compass with Dr. Rafi Lewis from Ashkelon Academic College and the University of Haifa.

“It is unlike any archaeological research we have done. Even if the events we studied from the distant past included evidence of destruction and severe acts of violence, the study at Battle Hill is different,” Marko said.

“Although 75 years have already passed since the fall of the 35, here, there are faces and names. There is an almost personal acquaintance with each of the characters. You wonder what happened to the warriors. Or did the compass — which has the marks of a bullet on it — pierce the heart of whoever held it in their pocket or hand? You do as much scientific work as possible, but it is very difficult to detach yourself from the emotional aspect.”

For the past two years, Marko and Lewis have been conducting an archaeological study of Battle Hill. The two met while serving in a reserve military unit tasked with finding missing soldiers. Marko and Lewis used archaeological methods to search for soldiers whose burial place is unknown.

Do You Love Israel? Make a Donation - Show Your Support!

Donate to vital charities that help protect Israeli citizens and inspire millions around the world to support Israel too!

Now more than ever, Israel needs your help to fight and win the war -- including on the battlefield of public opinion.

Antisemitism, anti-Israel bias and boycotts are out of control. Israel's enemies are inciting terror and violence against innocent Israelis and Jews around the world. Help us fight back!